A. Atlantis and the bull of fire (en)

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Version française

 

1. Atlantis, the island of Atlas, is our solar system

The quotations (in italics) are taken from Plato’s Critias, and more precisely the translation in the pdf below (unless otherwise stated):

Platon_Critias_extract_english

 

Poseidon fell in love with her and had intercourse with her, and breaking the ground, inclosed the hill in which she dwelt all round, making alternate zones of sea and land larger and smaller, encircling one another; there were two of land and three of water, which he turned as with a lathe, each having its circumference equidistant every way from the centre, so that no man could get to the island, for ships and voyages were not as yet. He himself, being a god, found no difficulty in making special arrangements for the centre island, bringing up two springs of water from beneath the earth, one of warm water and the other of cold, and making every variety of food to spring up abundantly from the soil. He also begat and brought up five pairs of twin male children; and dividing the island of Atlantis into ten portions, he gave to the first-born of the eldest pair his mother’s dwelling and the surrounding allotment, which was the largest and best, and made him king over the rest; the others he made princes, and gave them rule over many men, and a large territory. And he named them all; the eldest, who was the first king, he named Atlas, and after him the whole island and the ocean were called Atlantic. To his twin brother, who was born after him, and obtained as his lot the extremity of the island towards the Pillars of Heracles, facing the country which is now called the region of Gades in that part of the world, he gave the name which in the Hellenic language is Eumelus, in the language of the country which is named after him, Gadeirus.

 

Atlas+portant+le+Monde

Atlas, you know, this is the one who carries the world on his back…

It takes here its full meaning: Atlas is the Sun, the master of gravity in the center of the solar system, the one who (literally) carries the other planets, including the Earth. Regarding his twin, we will come back to him later.

Now Atlas had a numerous and honourable family (Luc Brisson and many others : « race »), and they retained the kingdom, the eldest son handing it on to his eldest for many generations

 

a. The Orichalcum or the fire

and the island itself provided most of what was required by them for the uses of life. In the first place, they dug out of the earth whatever was to be found there, solid as well as fusile, and that which is now only a name and was then something more than a name, orichalcum, was dug out of the earth in many parts of the island, being more precious in those days than anything except gold.

In the first place?
Plato said that this mysterious metal shines as “a burst of fire” (πυρώδης / pyrốdês).

At this point, it is important to know that metals other than iron, comes from nuclear reactions in the stars, or supernovae explosions.

 

The example of gold:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold

Gold’s atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements which occur naturally. Like all elements with atomic numbers larger than iron, gold is thought to have been formed from a supernova nucleosynthesis process. Their explosions scattered metal-containing dusts (including heavy elements like gold) into the region of space in which they later condensed into our solar system and the Earth.[68] Because the Earth was molten when it was just formed, almost all of the gold present on Earth sank into the core. Most of the gold that is present today in the Earth’s crust and mantle was delivered to Earth by asteroid impacts during the late heavy bombardment.[69]

It is very strange, when someone tells the story of a society of earlier than antiquity, to indicate that their island provided in the first place all the necessary metals, and in particular the Orichalcum.
But let us continue to read the description:

 

b. The description of the island, or a description of the solar system

brought forth fair and wondrous and in infinite abundance. With such blessings the earth freely furnished them; meanwhile they went on constructing their temples and palaces and harbours and docks. And they arranged the whole country in the following manner:

First of all they bridged over the zones of sea which surrounded the ancient metropolis, making a road to and from the royal palace. And at the very beginning they built the palace in the habitation of the god and of their ancestors, which they continued to ornament in successive generations, every king surpassing the one who went before him to the utmost of his power, until they made the building a marvel to behold for size and for beauty.

(…)
Now the largest of the zones into which a passage was cut from the sea was three stadia in breadth, and the zone of land which came next of equal breadth; but the next two zones, the one of water, the other of land, were two stadia, and the one which surrounded the central island was a stadium only in width. The island in which the palace was situated had a diameter of five stadia. All this including the zones and the bridge, which was the sixth part of a stadium in width, they surrounded by a stone wall on every side,

(…)
The stone which was used in the work they quarried from underneath the centre island, and from underneath the zones, on the outer as well as the inner side. One kind was white, another black, and a third red,

(…)
The entire circuit of the wall, which went round the outermost zone, they covered with a coating of brass, and the circuit of the next wall they coated with tin, and the third, which encompassed the citadel, flashed with the red light of orichalcum.

The palaces in the interior of the citadel were constructed on this wise:-in the centre was a holy temple dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon, which remained inaccessible, and was surrounded by an enclosure of gold; this was the spot where the family of the ten princes first saw the light, and thither the people annually brought the fruits of the earth in their season from all the ten portions, to be an offering to each of the ten. Here was Poseidon’s own temple which was a stadium in length, and half a stadium in width, and of a proportionate height, having a strange barbaric appearance. All the outside of the temple, with the exception of the pinnacles, they covered with silver, and the pinnacles with gold. In the interior of the temple the roof was of ivory, curiously wrought everywhere with gold and silver and orichalcum; and all the other parts, the walls and pillars and floor, they coated with orichalcum. In the temple they placed statues of gold: there was the god himself standing in a chariot-the charioteer of six winged horses-and of such a size that he touched the roof of the building with his head; around him there were a hundred Nereids riding on dolphins, for such was thought to be the number of them by the men of those days. There were also in the interior of the temple other images which had been dedicated by private persons. And around the temple on the outside were placed statues of gold of all the descendants of the ten kings and of their wives, and there were many other great offerings of kings and of private persons, coming both from the city itself and from the foreign cities over which they held sway. There was an altar too, which in size and workmanship corresponded to this magnificence, and the palaces, in like manner, answered to the greatness of the kingdom and the glory of the temple.

 

The winged horse, or Pegasus, is an image of the sun.

The winged horse, or Pegasus, is an image of the sun.

 

Leaving the palace and passing out across the three you came to a wall which began at the sea and went all round: this was everywhere distant fifty stadia from the largest zone or harbour, and enclosed the whole, the ends meeting at the mouth of the channel which led to the sea. The entire area was densely crowded with habitations; and the canal and the largest of the harbours were full of vessels and merchants coming from all parts, who, from their numbers, kept up a multitudinous sound of human voices, and din and clatter of all sorts night and day.

The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia. This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north.

 

c. Map of Atlantis and contradictions of the usual drawings

The Atlantis island can be described in two steps :
– The central island or city, which contains the Acropolis or the upper city and the Temple of Poseidon
– And the surrounding plain, circled outward by mountains.

Luc Brisson (who is the author of the translation in french I use) gives these two cards as a representation of Atlantis (the whole island, that means with the plain), and as a representation of the central island. Yet these images are totally wrong compared to the description which is given by Plato:

Atlantide_luc_brisson
Atlantide_ile_centrale_luc_brisson

 

In addition, there are many apparent contradictions in the general description of Atlantis, and it is, in my opinion, important to take them into account and try to understand them rather than ignore them.

 

Here the contradictions:

The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia. This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north.
The surrounding mountains were celebrated for their number and size and beauty, far beyond any which still exist,

(Luc Brisson translate – in French: “The territory constituted by the island as a whole was facing south and sheltered from cold winds from the north. Regarding the mountains around it, we celebrated in that time their number, their majesty and beauty … “)

Beware corrected translations to match the map made ​​by the author, this is why I strive to read several translations.
It is clearly written that the plain is placed around the city (the Acropolis and its rings), and it is not rectangle, as on the map, but oblong, which means almost elliptical. The entire island refers to Atlantis as a whole, and not to the central island (in this case it is always specified “central” ). It is oriented to the south and sheltered (by the surrounding mountains) from the north winds. This is a problem for translators who understand that such a scheme is impossible, unless … The Sun (ie the South) is located in its center, in the Acropolis. The South effectively means Sun, so the word is used in this case perfectly.

 

solarmini-1

The reason why many have placed the plain on a side of the island of Atlantis is probably the famous north and south directions. So they chose to designate by the term “island” the central island in this paragraph, while it is always specified “central” (or city) where it is described, and this is not the case here. In addition, the text clearly says “all around the city lay a plain which surrounded it and this plain was itself surrounded by mountains”

This is unequivocally the entire Atlantis or “the whole country” that is designated here, in opposition to the city or central island which was previously described in the text. Indeed, it is specified just before this description:

I have described the city and the environs of the ancient palace nearly in the words of Solon, and now I must endeavour to represent the nature and arrangement of the rest of the land.

The plain surrounds the central island (the Acropolis, its rings and the wall), and is also facing south.
It is not rectangle but oblong:

 

Oval2-1

 

The mountains protecting from the north winds can be the Kuiper belt and / or the Oort cloud, which limits our “planet solar system” literally carried by the sun itself (Atlas), that is to say, by the gravitational force originating from this one.

Oort cloud

Oort cloud

Kuiper belt

Kuiper belt

 

I will now describe the plain, as it was fashioned by nature and by the labours of many generations of kings through long ages. It was for the most part rectangular and oblong, and where falling out of the straight line followed the circular ditch. The depth, and width, and length of this ditch were incredible, and gave the impression that a work of such extent, in addition to so many others, could never have been artificial. Nevertheless I must say what I was told. It was excavated to the depth of a hundred, feet, and its breadth was a stadium everywhere; it was carried round the whole of the plain, and was ten thousand stadia in length. It received the streams which came down from the mountains, and winding round the plain and meeting at the city, was there let off into the sea.
Further inland, likewise, straight canals of a hundred feet in width were cut from it through the plain, and again let off into the ditch leading to the sea: these canals were at intervals of a hundred stadia, and by them they brought down the wood from the mountains to the city, and conveyed the fruits of the earth in ships, cutting transverse passages from one canal into another, and to the city.

 

 

Here my words about the two French translations I use :

Elles servaient au flottage des bois descendus des montagnes vers la ville et au transport par bateaux des autres productions de chaque saison, grâce à des canaux qui partaient des tranchées et les faisaient communiquer obliquement (Luc Brisson traduit “car des chenaux navigables avaient été ouverts à partir des canaux par rapport auxquels ils formaient un angle droit 163 et ils ouvraient une voie de communication vers la ville.” Il ajoute en note 163, pour justifier sa traduction : Alors que les canaux sont orientés Nord-Sud, les chenaux sont orientés Est-Ouest. Cf la carte 7. Ceci est donc tout à fait une interprétation.) les unes avec les autres et avec la ville.

And the translation:

They used to float down the wood from the mountains to the city and carriage by boats with other productions each season through channels that were leaving from the trenches and made communicating them obliquely with each other and with the city. (Luc Brisson translated “because of fairway were open from the channels from which they formed a 163 right angle and they opened a communication path to the city, “he adds the following in the footnote 163, to justify its translation : While the channels are oriented north-south, fairway are oriented East West. Cf map 7. This is also an interpretation justified by the map)

 

The channels are not straight but oblique “through channels that were leaving from the trenches and made them communicate obliquely with each other and with the city. “

These channels are not physical channels such that we can meet on Earth, but the rays from the sun, these are the channels where the light travels.

Here is my interpretation of the description of the island of Atlantis:

(Note that the oblong trenches in the island do not have specific numbers, even if the entire island is divided into ten. Here they are simply to show the shape of the island. According to my interpretation they are six in the plain, and ten parts are distributed as follows: 3 trenches in the central island, one wall, six trenches in the plain).

 

The whole Island of Atlantis

Atlantide

 

The oblong line represents on the outside the mountains that encircle the island.

The circle in the center represents the central island, the sea and the wall, visible in greater below:

 

The central island of Atlantis

The central island of Atlantis

 

A major contradiction in the description of Atlantis, in addition to the location of the South, is the following image:

Nevertheless I must say what I was told. It was excavated to the depth of a hundred, feet, and its breadth was a stadium everywhere; it was carried round the whole of the plain, and was ten thousand stadia in length. It received the streams which came down from the mountains, and winding round the plain and meeting at the city, was there let off into the sea.
Further inland, likewise, straight canals of a hundred feet in width were cut from it through the plain, and again let off into the ditch leading to the sea: these canals were at intervals of a hundred stadia, and by them they brought down the wood from the mountains to the city, and conveyed the fruits of the earth in ships, cutting transverse passages from one canal into another, and to the city.

The city is the highest part, and yet it is it this part which receives the streams from the mountains surrounding the plain, as it (the city) drew them to it. It is understandable that this can not work, and even when they arrive in the channel around the city, it quickly would overflow. Unless it is not water, a fluid used as an image comparison, but the solar system and the gravity of the Acropolis (the high city: the Sun), which draws to itself the wood and other productions each season…

The following statement supports this interpretation of a much broader and more universal Atlantis than just an island lost in the ocean on Earth:

Twice in the year they gathered the fruits of the earth-in winter having the benefit of the rains of heaven, and in summer the water which the land supplied by introducing streams from the canals.

Two seasons because two hemispheres (northern and southern). The season dates are no longer dependent only of the geolocation on Earth, it is described here a global phenomenon.

And of the inhabitants of the mountains and of the rest of the country there was also a vast multitude (Luc Brisson « infinite »)

And yes, it is written infinite. The number of people living in the mountains (the “North”) and beyond, that is to say beyond the solar system, in the universe, is infinite.
People are of course an image of the components and materials of the universe.

Each of the ten kings in his own division and in his own city had the absolute control of the citizens, and, in most cases, of the laws, punishing and slaying whomsoever he would. Now the order of precedence among them and their mutual relations were regulated by the commands of Poseidon which the law had handed down. These were inscribed by the first kings on a pillar of orichalcum, which was situated in the middle of the island, at the temple of Poseidon,

 

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