5. The swept away genes (en)

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Recently, I exchanged some emails with Mr. Zoltan Horusitzky who works primarily on the Mousterian flute from Divje Babe – which we will talk about later – but also on genetic studies of which I speak here.
Mr. Horusitzky (zhorusitzky@voila.fr) is also critical of this unclear study. He taught me the history of the famous percentage of 99.7% (and 99.84%) -DNA shared with Neanderthal – found in the press and that I stated here:

He said:

“The percentage 99.7%:
No sure material. The figure was probably announced May the 6th, 2010 during a teleconference Pääbo, Reich and Green with a prohibition on the broadcast before May the 7th, the publication of Science. But on May 7th the percentage was not found in Science but journalists spread it everywhere.

The percentage of 99.84: was sent to Ann Gibbons long before May the 6th, since she has published in the same issue of Science that the Draft Sequence accepted by the journal in April already.
Calculation: 12.67 x 0.0128 = 0.16%, Figure 2 of Green et al. In 2010. (Doubtful)
So why has he played hide and seek with the 99.7% thereafter?”

I am not one of those who look the exact percentage of Neanderthal genome within us. Obviously I would like know, but I think it is a red herring. There are too many elements that are missing, incorrect, impossible to find, to find an exact number. We must ensure that the individuals chosen are truly representative of their group, and we have seen that it was not the case for modern individuals, and this is not the case for Neanderthal individuals. So what can we do with these poor results? What we can I think. That is to say open to take from them a probable truth.

1) Percentages and false statistics

On the percentage of 99.7%. It is therefore our (but of whom? Europeans? Or Asian? Or Papuans?) part from the genome that is identical to that of Neanderthal. But what kind of Neanderthal? Vindija and Mezmaiskaya?

In the following figure I’m basing the fact that the 99.7% cited concern the Han Chinese individual who harvest, as explained in the previous article, the greater part of the official results. The DNA called “Neanderthal” with which it is compared would be the Neanderthal reference DNA : Vindija and Mezmaiskaya.

The “Neanderthal” DNA is in fact imaginary, since I think the Neanderthal reference DNA is widely hybridized.
Indeed, to enrich the diversity of it, it was added 2% Neanderthal DNA from Mezmaiskaya, which itself is hybridized to Denisova (see previous article). So the Neanderthal reference DNA is potentially denisovian (Asian) up to 2%.

If you try to remove those 2%, to have Vindija’s DNA, we are again confronted with a problem of hybridization. We do not know how much denisovian DNA these Vindija individuals had, but even apart from that, we know that it is very likely that these individuals were hybridized to Africans, considering their age (Vindija: – 38 000 years, whereas the hybridization probably occurred in the Middle East between -80,000 years and -100,000 years), and even genetic results (up to 1.5%).

Add to this the elements detailed above, including the implausible fact that the so-called “European” DNA is derived from two American Mormons.

The graph presented here should not be taken literally, but they are supposed to show the nonsense in the stated results, but they do not show all the vulnerabilities.

The following table is the table of results, visible in the previous article but this time it is colored for better visibility. It clearly shows the 1.5% “Neanderthal” DNA (this is actually the opposite, Neanderthal DNA containing Yoruba DNA) in the Yoruba (African) individual NA19240. This could be a simple mistake, but then how to explain the results of comparisons of European individuals and Chinese individuals and with Yoruba NA18517 and Yoruba NA19240?
The European individual NA12156 compared to a Yoruba containing no so-called “Neanderthal” DNA suddenly has 5.1% of Neanderthal DNA, and it has only 3.1% compared to the Yoruba individual containing Neanderthal DNA: Yoruba NA19240. The Chinese individual meanwhile, which is probably not hybridized to the African, but to Denisova, has 3.9% more Neanderthal DNA compared to the NA18517 individual and Yoruba has 5.4% more Neanderthal DNA compared to the Yoruba individual NA19240.

THE GRAPH:

Atala Neanderthal genetic studies Max Planck graph

Neanderthal genome graph

THE TABLE:

Atala Neanderthal genome project table 4

Neanderthal genome table 4

2) Selection sweep scan (S Score)

Now that we know more about the exposed percentages, it seems clear that the so-called « European » individual is one that have the most effective part of Neanderthal DNA.

But what is this part of Neanderthal DNA?
Once again, you have to ask the question the other way: how much of our DNA resembles the less Neanderthal DNA?

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute are asking this question under the cover of “positive evolution”. Indeed, remember, as we explained before, they are primarily concerned by what makes us different from Neanderthals. Probably because the rest is Neanderthal, it is easier to show the differences rather than similarities.
Let us then look at what they give us, that is to say, the S score or Selective Sweep Scan.
And even more precise, the 5% lowest scores in the S score.

http://genome-mirror.1med.uni-kiel.de/cgi-bin/hgTrackUi?&c=chr1&g=ntSssTop5p

This track shows regions of the human genome with a strong signal for depletion of Neandertal-derived alleles (regions from the Sel Swp Scan (S) track with S scores in the lowest 5%), which may indicate an episode of positive selection in early humans.

From Green and Reich’s SOM:

We also sorted this list of 212 regions by genetic?width. S is related to the statistical depletion of Neandertal alleles within a region. It can?thus be considered a ranking of confidence that there is a signal for a selective sweep at?all. Genetic width, calculated using the recombination map of Myers and co-workers?(S70), should be proportional to the strength of the selective sweep, if one occurred. This?is because a stronger sweep will pass through a population in fewer generations, and thus?fewer recombinations, than a slower sweep. The top candidate by genetic width?prioritization, containing the gene THADA is shown in Figure 4C.

The table on which we will work, Table S37, which is too long to copy here, but which you’ll find in this same study report, therefore shows the Neanderthal genome regions, and genes, that have been swept away fastest, and therefore are less present in the Neanderthal form, in the modern genome.

I analyze them in the opposite direction of the table, that is to say, I start with the regions of the genome, or genes, which were swept away the fastest (in a few generations), to move towards those who where swept away more slowly.
I watched these genes one by one, but I have retained only the most relevant. It is still important to know that others code for general elements such as the functioning of DNA, the functionning of cells, metabolism, blood clotting, and immune system. Some have an functioning that is not known.

Most of the information is collected on the sites http://www.biogps.org or http://www.genecards.org, the terms marked GO: ……… can be checked onhttp://amigo.geneontology.org/cgi-bin/amigo/go.cgi, by copying the code.

VPS13B
BRAIN / VISION

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=157680
Bilogical Process
protein localization (GO:0008104)
protein transport (GO:0015031)

http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=VPS13B
This gene encodes a potential transmembrane protein that may function in vesicle-mediated transport and sorting of proteins within the cell. This protein may play a role in the development and the function of the eye, hematological system, and central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Cohen syndrome. Multiple splice variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene.

MYO9A
VISION

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=4649
Biological Process
small GTPase mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264)
visual perception (GO:0007601)
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction (GO:0051056)
Cellular Component
cytosol (GO:0005829)
membrane (GO:0016020)
integral to membrane (GO:0016021)
unconventional myosin complex (GO:0016461)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4649
This gene encodes a member of the myosin superfamily. The protein represents an unconventional myosin; it should not be confused with the conventional non-muscle myosin-9 (MYH9). Unconventional myosins contain the basic domains of conventional myosins and are further distinguished from class members by their tail domains. They function as actin-based molecular motors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndrome_de_Bardet-Biedl
(rétinite pigmentaire)

MTMR8
BRAIN / MUSCLE

http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MTMR8

This gene encodes a member of the myotubularin-related family and is part of the MTMR6 subgroup. Family members are dual-specificity phosphatases and the encoded protein contains a phosphoinositide-binding domain (PID) and a SET-interacting domain (SID). Defects in other family members have been found in myotubular myopathic diseases.
(provided by RefSeq)

RHOA
BRAIN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RHOA

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=387

Biological Process
cell morphogenesis (GO:0000902)
GTP catabolic process (GO:0006184)
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0006357)
cell cycle (GO:0007049)
cell adhesion (GO:0007155)
cell-matrix adhesion (GO:0007160)
small GTPase mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264)
Rho protein signal transduction (GO:0007266)
axon guidance (GO:0007411)
skeletal muscle tissue development (GO:0007519)
blood coagulation (GO:0007596)
actin cytoskeleton organization (GO:0030036)
cell differentiation (GO:0030154)
platelet activation (GO:0030168)
regulation of cell migration (GO:0030334)
androgen receptor signaling pathway (GO:0030521)
negative regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway (GO:0033144)
regulation of osteoblast proliferation (GO:0033688)
positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus (GO:0042346)
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade (GO:0043123)
apical junction assembly (GO:0043297)
negative regulation of neuron apoptosis (GO:0043524)
ossification involved in bone maturation (GO:0043931)
interspecies interaction between organisms (GO:0044419)
positive regulation of neuron differentiation (GO:0045666)
nerve growth factor receptor signaling pathway (GO:0048011)
phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling (GO:0048015)
regulation of axonogenesis (GO:0050770)
negative regulation of axonogenesis (GO:0050771)
positive regulation of axonogenesis (GO:0050772)
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction (GO:0051056)
cell division (GO:0051301)
positive regulation of stress fiber assembly (GO:0051496)
trabecula morphogenesis (GO:0061383)
positive regulation of cell cycle cytokinesis (GO:0071777)
spindle assembly involved in mitosis (GO:0090307)

LAMB2
BRAIN / VISION / NEURONS

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3913

Biological Process
cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation (GO:0000904)
cell adhesion (GO:0007155)
neuromuscular junction development (GO:0007528)
visual perception (GO:0007601)

astrocyte development (GO:0014002)
Schwann cell development (GO:0014044)
neuron projection development (GO:0031175)
axon extension involved in regeneration (GO:0048677)
retina development in camera-type eye (GO:0060041)
metanephric glomerular visceral epithelial cell development (GO:0072249)
metanephric glomerular basement membrane development (GO:0072274

RAB3GAP1
BRAIN / VISION / FACE

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=22930

Biological Process
brain development (GO:0007420)
hypothalamus development (GO:0021854)
positive regulation of Rab GTPase activity (GO:0032851)
camera-type eye development (GO:0043010)
regulation of GTPase activity (GO:0043087)
face morphogenesis (GO:0060325)

http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RAB3GAP1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro_syndrome

STRBP
SPERMATOGENESIS / REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION / SENSES

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=55342

Biological Process
cellular component movement (GO:0006928)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
spermatogenesis (GO:0007283)
spermatid development (GO:0007286)
mechanosensory behavior (GO:0007638)
cell differentiation (GO:0030154)

TSGA10
SPERMATOGENESIS

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=80705

Biological Process
spermatogenesis (GO:0007283)
cell projection assembly (GO:0030031)

DDX5
GENITAL ORGANS

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=1655

Biological Process
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0000122)
regulation of alternative nuclear mRNA splicing, via spliceosome (GO:0000381)
nuclear mRNA splicing, via spliceosome (GO:0000398)
RNA splicing (GO:0008380)
cell growth (GO:0016049)
positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway (GO:0033148)
positive regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator (GO:0043517)
regulation of osteoblast differentiation (GO:0045667)
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0045944)
regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway (GO:0060765)
signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in induction of apoptosis (GO:0072332)
regulation of skeletal muscle cell differentiation (GO:2001014)

PVRL3
VISION / FERTILIZATION

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=25945

Biological Process
lens morphogenesis in camera-type eye (GO:0002089)
homophilic cell adhesion (GO:0007156)
fertilization (GO:0009566)
cell junction assembly (GO:0034329)
adherens junction organization (GO:0034332)
cell-cell junction organization (GO:0045216)
retina morphogenesis in camera-type eye (GO:0060042)

COL8A1
VISION

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=1295

Biological Process
angiogenesis (GO:0001525)
cell adhesion (GO:0007155)
positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion (GO:0010811)
camera-type eye morphogenesis (GO:0048593)
epithelial cell proliferation (GO:0050673)

OTX1
BRAIN / INNER EAR / SENSES

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=5013

Biological Process
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0006357)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
forebrain development (GO:0030900)
midbrain development (GO:0030901)
inner ear morphogenesis (GO:0042472)

http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=OTX1

This gene encodes a member of the bicoid sub-family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors. The encoded protein acts as a transcription factor and may play a role in brain and sensory organ development. A similar protein in mouse is required for proper brain and sensory organ development and can cause epilepsy. Alternate splicing results in two transcript variants that encoded the same protein.

SLC25A31
MALE GAMETES

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=83447

Biological Process
transmembrane transport (GO:0055085)
Cellular Component
mitochondrion (GO:0005739)
mitochondrial inner membrane (GO:0005743)
cilium (GO:0005929)
membrane (GO:0016020)
integral to membrane (GO:0016021)
flagellum (GO:0019861)

OSR2
EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT / HEARING / VISUAL / MOUTH DEVELOPMENT / HEAD DEVELOPMENT

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=116039

Biological Process
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0000122)
metanephros development (GO:0001656)
mesonephros development (GO:0001823)
chondrocyte differentiation (GO:0002062)
positive regulation of cell proliferation (GO:0008284)
embryo development (GO:0009790)
positive regulation of gene expression (GO:0010628)
cell differentiation (GO:0030154)
positive regulation of bone mineralization (GO:0030501)
osteoblast proliferation (GO:0033687)
embryonic forelimb morphogenesis (GO:0035115)
embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis (GO:0035116)
embryonic skeletal limb joint morphogenesis (GO:0036023)
middle ear morphogenesis (GO:0042474)
odontogenesis (GO:0042476)
embryonic digit morphogenesis (GO:0042733)
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0045893)
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0045944)
embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis (GO:0048704)
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation (GO:0050679)
palate development (GO:0060021)
embryonic skeletal joint morphogenesis (GO:0060272)
head development (GO:0060322)
bone morphogenesis (GO:0060349)
eyelid development in camera-type eye (GO:0061029)
embryonic skeletal joint development (GO:0072498)

EIF2B2
SENSES / NERVOUS SYSTEM

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=8892

Biological Process
ovarian follicle development (GO:0001541)
translation (GO:0006412)
translational initiation (GO:0006413)
translational initiation (GO:0006413)
regulation of translational initiation (GO:0006446)
regulation of translational initiation (GO:0006446)
central nervous system development (GO:0007417)
response to heat (GO:0009408)
response to heat (GO:0009408)
response to glucose stimulus (GO:0009749)
gene expression (GO:0010467)
oligodendrocyte development (GO:0014003)
myelination (GO:0042552)
response to peptide hormone stimulus (GO:0043434)
cellular metabolic process (GO:0044237)
cellular protein metabolic process (GO:0044267)
cellular response to stimulus (GO:0051716)

TMED10
BRAIN

http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=TMED10

This gene is a member of the EMP24/GP25L/p24 family and encodes a protein with a GOLD domain. This type I membrane
protein is localized to the plasma membrane and golgi cisternae and is involved in vesicular protein trafficking. The
protein is also a member of a heteromeric secretase complex and regulates the complex’s gamma-secretase activity
without affecting its epsilon-secretase activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 8. (provided by RefSeq)

AUTS2
BRAIN?

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=26053
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17211639

Mutations in autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) in patients with mental retardation.
Abstract
We report on three unrelated mentally disabled patients, each carrying a de novo balanced translocation that truncates the autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene at 7q11.2. One of our patients shows relatively mild mental retardation; the other two display more profound disorders. One patient is also physically disabled, exhibiting urogenital and limb malform9
post-embryonic development (GO:0009791)
negative regulation of gene expression (GO:0010629)
negative regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway (GO:0010642)
negative regulation of neuron projection development (GO:0010977)
response to insulin stimulus (GO:0032868)
inositol trisphosphate metabolic process (GO:0032957)
response to drug (GO:0042493)
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity (GO:0043407)
negative regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway (GO:0043569)
cellular lipid metabolic process (GO:0044255)
negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0046627)
phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation (GO:0046854)

HOXD11
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3237

Biological Process
skeletal system development (GO:0001501)
metanephros development (GO:0001656)
branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis (GO:0001658)
organ induction (GO:0001759)
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
pattern specification process (GO:0007389)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
dorsal/ventral pattern formation (GO:0009953)
proximal/distal pattern formation (GO:0009954)
positive regulation of cell development (GO:0010720)
positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation (GO:0032332)
embryonic digit morphogenesis (GO:0042733)
developmental growth (GO:0048589)
cartilage development involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis (GO:0060351)

HOXD8
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3234

Biological Process
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0000122)
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
anterior/posterior axis specification, embryo (GO:0008595)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
skeletal system morphogenesis (GO:0048705)

HOXD1
EMBRYON

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3231
Biological Process
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
embryonic skeletal system development (GO:0048706)

HOXD10
EMBRYO/BRAIN

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3236
Biological Process
skeletal system development (GO:0001501)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
skeletal muscle tissue development (GO:0007519)
adult locomotory behavior (GO:0008344)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
proximal/distal pattern formation (GO:0009954)
spinal cord motor neuron cell fate specification (GO:0021520)
embryonic limb morphogenesis (GO:0030326)
forelimb morphogenesis (GO:0035136)
hindlimb morphogenesis (GO:0035137)
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0045944)
embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis (GO:0048704)
peripheral nervous system neuron development (GO:0048935)
neuromuscular process (GO:0050905)

HOXD13
GENITAL ORGANS / EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3239
Biological Process
skeletal system development (GO:0001501)
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0006366)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
pattern specification process (GO:0007389)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
gland morphogenesis (GO:0022612)
male genitalia development (GO:0030539)
regulation of cell proliferation (GO:0042127)
embryonic digit morphogenesis (GO:0042733)
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0045944)
embryonic hindgut morphogenesis (GO:0048619)
prostate epithelial cord arborization involved in prostate glandular acinus morphogenesis (GO:0060527)
morphogenesis of an epithelial fold (GO:0060571)
branch elongation of an epithelium (GO:0060602)
regulation of branching involved in prostate gland morphogenesis (GO:0060687)

HOXD4
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3233
Biological Process
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis (GO:0048704)
stem cell differentiation (GO:0048863)

HOXD12
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3238

Biological Process
skeletal system development (GO:0001501)
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
pattern specification process (GO:0007389)
embryonic digit morphogenesis (GO:0042733)

HOXD9
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3235
Biological Process
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
skeletal muscle tissue development (GO:0007519)
adult locomotory behavior (GO:0008344)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
proximal/distal pattern formation (GO:0009954)
mammary gland development (GO:0030879)
embryonic forelimb morphogenesis (GO:0035115)
hindlimb morphogenesis (GO:0035137)
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter (GO:0045944)
embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis (GO:0048704)
peripheral nervous system neuron development (GO:0048935)

HOXD3
BRAIN / EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=3232
Biological Process
transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006351)
cell-matrix adhesion (GO:0007160)
Notch signaling pathway (GO:0007219)
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
anterior/posterior pattern specification (GO:0009952)
positive regulation of gene expression (GO:0010628)
thyroid gland development (GO:0030878)
positive regulation of neuron differentiation (GO:0045666)
embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis (GO:0048704)
cartilage development (GO:0051216)

DLK1
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=8788
Biological Process
multicellular organismal development (GO:0007275)
embryo development (GO:0009790)
post-embryonic development (GO:0009791)
embryonic skeletal system development (GO:0048706)

Meg3
EMBRYO

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=17263
Biological Process
in utero embryonic development (GO:0001701)
liver development (GO:0001889)
negative regulation of cell proliferation (GO:0008285)
determination of adult lifespan (GO:0008340)
post-embryonic development (GO:0009791)
gonadotropin secretion (GO:0032274)
RNA folding (GO:0034337)
multicellular organism growth (GO:0035264)
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0045892)
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0045893)
lung alveolus development (GO:0048286)
negative regulation of DNA biosynthetic process (GO:2000279)

JRKL
NERVOUS SYSTEM

http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=8690
Biological Process
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355)
central nervous system development (GO:0007417)

3) Conclusion

These genes are the genes that are “less similar” Neanderthals and in modern human , and therefore, have changed the most in the hybridization Neanderthal / sapiens. I prefer to say “the less similar” as the “most different” because if these genes are so-called “swept away” in their Neanderthal form, they can still present it. It is simply the percentage or rate of resemblance is the lowest. We also say that these genes were swept away in their Neanderthal form, to have acquired one or other (s) form (s), not “type Sapiens”, but mutated form(s).
In this article, genes are listed the most rapidly swept away (within less generations) , to the less quickly swept away (within many generations) ; in Table S37 in the Green and Reich SOM it is the reverse. This is a purely personal choice, and it will be meaningful in the following article.

As I explained earlier I have not detailed all genes but I have selected those which seemed to me most relevant. Genes that are not listed above but present in the 5% of the “swept away” genes generally encode for the following elements:
Functioning of DNA
Cell function
Functioning of the blood clotting
Immune system
Metabolic functioning
The genes for the three first functionings are obviously important but their direct role is difficult to determine. The immune system and especially the functioning of the metabolism is essential in our study and we’ll talk later but they did not need to be listed as well as their role is not as diverse in both areas.

You can realize that most genes listed encode near and far for elements related to the head, but also elements related to sexuality and reproduction.
Remember, now, that sexuality, reproduction, and metabolism, are the elements directly transformed or genetically “mutated” in cases of animal hybridization …
For the head and the complex brain that contains, you can think about that with those two pictures before the next article…

Atala Neanderthal European skull comparison

Neanderthal and modern European skull comparison

Above: the Neanderthal skull from La Chapelle-aux-Saints (Correze, France), bottom: an European skull.

Atala Neanderthal modern European skull comparison

Modern european (left) and Neanderthal (right) skull comparison

Left: an European skull, right: the Neanderthal skull from La Chapelle-aux-Saints (Correze, France)

What has happened?

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