At school, we learn that there existed different human types. They show a so-called typical Neanderthal, for example the individ from La Chapelle-aux-Saints, and the so-called typical Cro-Magnon, for example from les Eyzies, and they show the differences. They are clear. Generally, we only look at the skulls, and always, they omit to mention the other. The all others.
Because no one say that Cro-Magnon is not a fixed type. And yet it is presented as THE new European man.
We have seen that he came from nowhere, and now we will see that the famous Cro-Magnon is not a race, species, or a type of man. It is a time period. However they are many reconstructions of one type of man.
“Cro-Magnon” is the man from Les Eyzies. This one. By extension, it has given to every man from the same period reproducing almost the same type, his name : Cro Magnon. But what about all the others?
a. The forgotten vitamin
The European skeleton … is that from Neanderthal?
Short stature. It is likely that the stature has diminished during glacial periods, it is also likely that it is linked to diet and / or vitamin D production, which is lower when solar radiation decreases. Finally, it is likely that the proportion of female individuals is higher, which would lower the average size, as no Neanderthal was found with a full pelvis, it is impossible to know with certainty the sex of the studied individuals.
Genetic studies of the Max Planck Institute showed that the three individuals from Vindija were three women.
More flared ribcage.
A forearm shorter than the upper-arm.
A lower iliac wing.
A very long and slender pubic bone.
A wide kneecap.
lower-legs are shorter than thighs.
Stronger muscle insertions.
Supraorbital ridge or sunken eyes/nasal bones.
Africans compared to Europeans
Lower-legs and thighs have relatively equal size.
Bust look shorter (in fact, due to the more pronounced curvature of the spine in the African, it is not so). Narrower pelvis.
More slender teeth.
(The comparison studies are easily accessible to race on French www.persee.fr. I will try to summarize them in a appendix.)
In modern times, the skeleton of European human, is not like homo sapiens, but like Neanderthal.
The ratio bust / lower limb is identical, the size of the forearm relative to the upper-arm is the same (that is to say: the forearm is shorter than the upper-arm), the thighs are longer than the lower-legs and pelvis is wider.
In any European human anatomy book, you will find the same type of report, and any artist could see that by himself. The european forearm is shorter than the upper-arm, thighs are longer, the female pelvis is wider and the waist is thin, the whole shape is straight and not cambered, the sacrum is clearly pushed forward. Both femurs, even in males, are not parallel, but form a triangle, and finally, the iliac wings are like in Neanderthal pelvis, not in “Sapiens” pelvis.
Here are images from the anatomy book for the use of artists from Andras Szunyoghy and Dr. György Feher (Könemann 1999) compared to official homo sapiens and Neanderthal. More simply, you can wrote “anatomy” in google image, or open any book for children about the human body, and you will notice easily that the European skeleton is much closer to the Neanderthal skeleton that to the so-called « sapiens » skeleton. The only exceptions are the skull and rib cage, and we will return to these two points. It seems clear that the differences between the so-called Neanderthal and the so-called Sapiens are also differences between the European and the black African.
b. A rib cage “in champagne cork,” a well-known deformation of rickets.
The prehistoric “Frankenstein”.
Blaine Maley (University of Washington) and GJ Sawyer (Museum of Natural History in New York), two American anthropologists have reconstructed an entire neanderthal skeleton. To do this they are mainly based on the remains found in the La Ferrassie specimen and they added other bones of Homo neanderthalensis (including Kebara 2 – Israel).
Striking anatomical differences. Reconstitution has allowed scientists to observe several characteristics of the species. Homo neanderthalensis had a more flared chest at the base (ie bell-shaped) and pelvic area had female aspect (wider)… The most amazing thing is that this is the first time that such a reconstruction is made, even though scientists are still struggling on his relationship with Homo sapiens. This articulated skeleton will allow to better compare the two species, especially in biomechanics and the stature of this species.
The information was released in the journal The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist.
In brown the fossil remains from La Ferrassie, in green Kebara 2, and the white bones are reconstructed:
To my knowledge, only Kebara 2 (between 60 000 and 48 000) gave almost complete remains of rib cage, so how can they base the myth of the bell shaped rib cage on one hybrid individual especially when the deformation is a well known rickets deformation? See below:
Rickets is a disease caused by a lack of D vitamin in childhood. But D vitamin is provided by the sunlight, lower in this time, and more easily stored by pale hair and pale skin.
There is a long-standing hypothesis that the selection for lighter skin due to higher vitamin D absorption occurred soon after the Out of Africamigration sometime before 40,000 years ago. A number of researchers disagree with this and suggest that the northern latitudes permitted enoughsynthesis of vitamin D combined with food sources from hunting to keep populations healthy, and only when agriculture was adopted was there a need for lighter skin to maximize the synthesis of vitamin D.
Why they base the particular anatomy of the Neandertal rib cage on one (hybrid) case, that modern doctors could diagnose as rachitic? A disease that was probably very common among mixed race (as skin and / or hair was darker for a very low solar radiation level) at that time. This bone deformity is well known distortion in rickets, the rib cage is then called “champagne cork” shaped. In the case of the Kebara 2 individual, only the parts used in the reconstruction of Neanderthal skeleton were found. Maybe his legs would have shown other signs of rickets? No one knows.
In this regard, a black person in Europe in the phases of low solar radiation would not have survived, and rickets, as other problems associated with D vitamin deficiency are not forgotten today.
It is interesting to dwell on the fact that in Europe, all young children should officially be supplemented with D vitamin, while solar radiation had previously been much lower. In reality, blond children with pale skin, who are now in the minority, but “natives” do not need this treatment (if they do not use sunscreen …) but the other are exposed to rickets.
See below, in French:
« Prévention du rachitisme vitaminoprive chez le nourrisson de 0 à 18 mois : En traitement préventif du rachitisme, la supplémentation en vitamine D doit être dès la naissance de :
400 à 800 UI de vitamine D chez les nourrissons consommant des laits enrichis en vitamine D. Les aliments diététiques lactés pour nourrissons sont enrichis en vitamine D (400 à 600 UI/l en moyenne). Ceci ne dispense pas de la prophylaxie médicamenteuse.
1 000 à 1 200 UI chez le nourrisson nourri au sein ou au lait de vache
1 200 à 1 600 UI chez les prématurés et les enfants à peau pigmentée. 400 à 1 200 UI/j de vitamine D jusqu’à18 mois suffisent à prévenir le rachitisme dans la majorité des cas. »
Women are often lighter than men in the same population, and their skin is thinner, and undoubtedly that is because they have a greater need for D vitamin during pregnancy and lactation. Children are also lighter, and their hair is remarkably fair, probably because of the increased need for D vitamin in the construction of their skeleton.
c. Is there the same relationship between Co-Magnon and Neanderthal that between the labrador and the wolf?
This title is intended to make us reflect about one thing: Is there a difference between sweetness and beauty?
Björn Kurtén, far from the clichés of Neanderthal reconstructions that are classics today, wrote in his novel Dance of the Tiger, the supra-orbital ridge above Neanderthals gave them a proud and sharp eyes. Far from being a primitive sign, it is a sign of maturity and wisdom, like wrinkles on a face.
Compare the supra-orbital ridge among Neanderthal to the supra-orbital ridge among monkey when the Neanderthal skull is otherwise completely different to a chimpanzee skull, which is excessively small, highly prognathic with large animal canine teeth and bones of the nose are absent.
The Reconstructions dangerously exaggerate the supra-orbital ridge among the Neanderthal, without talk about the aspect that it inevitably induces to the eyes of the individual. The aim is always to get a result primitive and crude.
However, if you lightly press your eyebrows to your eyes, creating a reasonable and realistic supraorbital bump, or if you frown, you will not look more primitive but more serious and older. A child instinctively frown when he think or when he is angry, to appear more aggressive, despite his « cute » features.
It is common to frown to enhance his sight, and it is well known that myopic people frown and can so adjust their handicap. The human eye is able to zoom. This is why we tend to frown when we are focused on a mathematical formula : we reproduce the visual zoom in our brain.
or in French:
Un myope voit flou de loin. Un clignement est souvent noté chez une personne myope qui va tenter de froncer les sourcils et plisser les yeux pour mieux voir (l’étymologie du terme “myope”, en grec « muôpia » signifie cligner).
Look cute and / or young awakes among the others a protective instinct. A grown man should not look cute, but he must be dominant, scary by his presence and thus be protective but not protected. It’s the same for women, it is necessary to repeat that today, who are not children. A woman, if she must be protected by men and thus probably be more “cute” than men need to be, she must also be able to protect and inspire an instinctive respect.
Thus, the supra-orbital ridge was less pronounced among Neanderthal women, but it was present. Children are much more afraid of unknown men than unknown women because their presence inspires mistrust and respect, and the position of their brow gives an idea of their strength and their ability to concentrate their energy on one point, an idea of their dramatic wisdom. Plato, Seneca, Beethoven, Leonardo da Vinci, Kierkegaard and scholars are represented frowning, with sharp eyes, in a Neanderthal way, and no one will claim that they have there a primitive look. This is also why we are frowning in front of a child who have done something wrong. We try in this way seems more “adult” to enforce respect and, by a way, fear.
So was Neanderthal the man who frowned?
A prehistoric Plato?
Probably, but why Cro-Magnon, the hybrid, lost this respectable characteristic?
Because Cro-Magnon, in the manner of Ligers or tigons is an eternal adolescent. A stopped child. As a infinite handicap, that is well-known in animal hybridization, we’re not finished. Indeed, as we have seen previously, the supra-orbital ridge is, and has always been absent in the Neanderthal child until the end of puberty (it is the same among chimps and among the other wild animals).
Even more surprising are the the following discoveries:
Wolves have a well known glance, which requires immediate respect and fear, while dogs, the domestic hybrids have lost and they look as cute as big cubs. More interesting is to compare their skulls:
(Dog to the left, wolf to the right)
(Dog to the left, wolf to the right)
We note the supra-orbital ridge on the wolf skull compared to the round skull of beauceron (also called « Chien de Beauce » her) dog (Image 2, skull 2).
Nota Bene: The Beauceron dog has a relatively lupoid facies in the dogs family, many breeds have more round heads as the extreme example of the chihuahua. Already rottweiler and labrador, which are traditional breeds of dog have a very round face and a clear stop, and that give them the eyes of big children.
Chihuahua skull :
Nobody will say that the wolf is primitive … But the chihuahua, very cute, has indeed the look of a puppy that never grew up. His head is round, with high forehead, and without supra-orbital ridge…
All wild predators have a sharp glance. A male lion is beautiful, but he is not “cute”, a lioness is beautiful, but she is not cute. A cub is cute. The same concerns tigers, lynx, bears – although their plump face gives them sometimes a more childish look -. Only dogs, men, and some breeds of domestic cats are “cute” in adulthood because they are never really adults.
So remember the tigon (Tiger x lioness hybrid), the eternal teenager…