4. Secrets of the Neanderthal genome (en)

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In the previous article, I showed gaps in the study of the Max Planck Institute on the topics Denisova and Neanderthal.

I am forced to continue on this subject the same time as to continue, since errors abound.

I told you that the Neanderthal DNA was apparently (see map) from Neandertal individuals from all over Europe, but in reality over 95% of DNA are sequenced from three individuals from the Vindija cave in Croatia, and are dated about -38,000 years. I have now found the table on this subject, in a study published by the Max Planck Institute, and I copy it here:

Atala Neanderthal table genetic sites

Genetic studie table

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2010/05/05/328.5979.710.DC1/Green_SOM.pdf

Page 23

Vi33.16, Vi33.25, Vi33.26 are the three individuals from Vindija, as shown in this table, the so-called « Neanderthal DNA » contains from the three sequenced individuals respectively 54.1%, 46.6% and 45.2%. Regarding the DNA of the three additional Neanderthals individuals, who are supposed to enlarge the apparent geographical area of the three initial Neanderthals samples, only 0.1% of the genome of the spanish individual (-38,000), 2.0% of the genome of the russian individual (- 65000), and 0.1% of the genome of the germanic individual (-39,000) were sequenced and added to the “the so-called Neanderthal DNA.” Therefore, it seems legitimate to say that the so-called Neanderthal DNA is dated to -38,000 years old and comes from individuals in the Vindija Cave in Croatia, with a small addition of older DNA (- 65000) from an asian (from Russia) Neanderthal individual, who are known to be closer to the Denisovian hominid than the Neanderthals of the west are. Id est it was probably hybridized to Denisova, although the official theory is different, but we will return to this subject in due course.

The study of the institute focusing specifically on the comparison of the so-called Neanderthal DNA with human individuals of different races.

Here is its summary table:

Atala Neanderthal genetic studie table 4

Neanderthal genetic table 4

http://www.eva.mpg.de/neandertal/press/presskit-neandertal/pdf/Science_Green.pdf

It was first sequenced five individuals (second part of the table):
HGDP01029 San
HGDP01029 Yoruba
HGDP00521 French
HGDP00542 Papuan
HGDP00778 Han

Then they added the comparison of additional individuals (first part of the table):
NA18517 Yoruba
NA18507 Yoruba
NA19240 Yoruba
NA19129 Yoruba

NA12878 European
NA12156 European

NA18956 Japanese

NA18555 Chinese

Concerning the study on Denisova, it seems that its genome has contributed to the DNA of Asian and Papuan populations (only). Considering the lack of seriousness and the ideological content of the proposed studies on this subject, I will not detail it here completely.

1) Investigation of individuals

To return to the Neanderthal genome analysis, I must say that in my mind, if I see individuals designated by numbers, I wonder who they are and how they are.
We will learn little about the first group – not even their gender – whose DNA was collected specifically for the study, although there are many DNA banks in the world.

ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/biosamples/sra/GEN-ERP000121/sampletab.txt

HGDP01029 San http://sra.dnanexus.com/samples/ERS007279
HGDP01029 Yoruba http://sra.dnanexus.com/samples/ERS007274
HGDP00521 Français http://sra.dnanexus.com/samples/ERS007255
HGDP00542 Papou http://sra.dnanexus.com/samples/ERS016125
HGDP00778 Han http://sra.dnanexus.com/samples/ERS007266

However, we will learn more about the second group, and this information is astonishing:

NA18517 Yoruba
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM18517
Female
Yoruba – Nigeria
Famille Y009 – Mother
Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria; all four grandparents are Yoruba

NA18507 Yoruba
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM18507
Male
Yoruba – Nigeria
Famille Y009 – Father
Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria; all four grandparents are Yoruba

NA19240 Yoruba
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM19240
Female
Yoruba – Nigeria
Famille Y117 – child
Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria; all four grandparents are Yoruba

NA19129 Yoruba
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM19129
Female
Yoruba – Nigeria
Famille Y077 – child
Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria; all four grandparents are Yoruba

NA12878 European
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM12878
Female
Caucasian – UTAH/MORMON USA
Famille 1463 – mother
Mother; donor subject has a single bp (G-to-A) transition at nucleotide 681 in exon 5 of the CYP2C19 gene (CYP2C19*2) which creates an aberrant splice site. The change altered the reading frame of the mRNA starting with amino acid 215 and produced a premature stop codon 20 amino acids downstream, resulting in a truncated, nonfunctional protein. Because of the aberrant splice site, a 40-bp deletion occurred at the beginning of exon 5 (from bp 643 to bp 682), resulting in deletion of amino acids 215 to 227. The truncated protein had 234 amino acids and would be catalytically inactive because it lacked the heme-binding region.

NA12156 European
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM12156
Female
Caucasian – UTAH/MORMON USA
Famille 1408 – maternal grandmother

NA18956 Japanese
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM18956
Female
Japanese – Japan
Japanese from the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan

NA18555 Chinese
http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/Search/Sample_Detail.aspx?Ref=GM18555
Female
Han Chinese – China
Han Chinese from Beijing, China; at least three out of four grandparents are Han

2) Populations and conclusions

a. African populations.

We learn that the four Yoruba individuals (West Africa, Nigeria) are « real » Yoruba. It does not appear that the gender difference leaves a autosomal genetic difference compared to Neanderthals autosomal genes. We can say, in agreement with the official theory, that there is no Neanderthal gene in this population, and this can be verified in the first, as in the second part of the table. The score is about 0%.

NB! The score of 1.5% of the Yoruba individual NA19240 will be discussed later.

It is the same for the San people, tested only with an anonymous individual – part 2 in the table. Neanderthal genetic material in the San population is about 0%.

b. So-called European populations.

The European population was tested with an anonymous French and two “european” individuals, who are not European, but American and not classical American, but Mormons. The Mormons, whose religion is a derivative of Judaism, are often genetically linked to the Jews, who are not European, but one of the most racially mixed populations of the world. They are linked to such a degree that Mormons who can prove their genetic relationship with the Jews get Israeli citizenship in accordance with the Jewish Law of Return. So why two Mormons from Utah as European sample? Nobody knows, especially since their DNA banks have many different European individuals.

http://ccr.coriell.org/Sections/BrowseCatalog/Populations.aspx?PgId=4

Les membres de l’Église de Jésus-Christ des saints des derniers jours se disent de la Maison d’Israël soit descendants directs, soit par adoption. En tant que tel, le judaïsme est à la base de l’histoire du mormonisme. Les Juifs sont considérés comme un peuple de l’alliance de Dieu, tenu en haute estime et respectés dans la foi mormone.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mormonisme_et_judaïsme#Juda.C3.AFsme_7

We note too a significant genetic difference between these two individuals. When we compare the “European” individual NA12878 or the “European” individual with the Yoruba individual NA18507, we get different results.

Génome NA12878 (European) – Génome NA18517 (Yoruba) = 4,1 %
Génome NA12878 (European) – Génome NA18507 (Yoruba) = 4,2%
Génome NA12878 (European) – Génome NA19240 (Yoruba) = 3,5%
Génome NA12878 (European) – Génome NA19129 (Yoruba) = 3,9%

This gives an average of 3.93% of genes out for genes that are shared between human and chimpanzee (let us be clear: this means that if we share 95% of our genome with chimpanzees – which is the most modest assumption : since some have claimed 99% – an individual with 4% of his genome that derived exclusively from Neanderthal will have 99% in common with Neanderthal)

For the other individual: the operation is here:

Génome NA12156 (European) – Génome NA18517 (Yoruba) = 5,1 %
Génome NA12156 (European) – Génome NA18507 (Yoruba) = 5,5 %
Génome NA12156 (European) – Génome NA19240 (Yoruba) = 3,1 %
Génome NA12156 (European) – Génome NA19129 (Yoruba) = 4,9%

An average of 4.65% of genes exclusively from Neanderthal.

Concerning the anonymous and so-called french individual (what kind of French ?): here is the operation:

HGDP00521 genome (French) – Genome HGDP01029 (Yoruba) = 4.5%

It seems that the anonymous individual of unknown origin has about the same quantity of genetic that derived exclusively from Neanderthal than Mormon individuals from Utah, so called europeans although this proportion differs by 0.7%.

c. Asian populations.
NB! Populations whose genome has a high proportion of denisovian heritage.

Papuans

Regarding the Papuan population, it is tested only with an anonymous individual – part 2 in the table – the genetic material in the Neanderthal population is estimated to an average of approximately 4.15% (3.9% compared to the San individual, 4.4% from the individual with Yoruba always about ± 1% error).

HGDP00542 (Papuan) – HGDP01029 (San) = 3,9 %
HGDP00542 (Papuan) – HGDP01029 (Yoruba) = 4,4 %

Han Chinese.

Regarding the population Han Chinese, we have two individuals. One (in the second part of the table: HGDP00778) is anonymous, the other (in the first part: NA18555) is the female individual whose identity is described above. Please note, that (only) three grandparents of the four are “certified” Han. The fourth may be of any origin, what gives to this study a vague taste of amateurism.

Operations are like that:

Anonymous individual: Genome HGDP00778 (Han) – Genome HGDP01029 (Yoruba) = 5.3% genomic contribution that comes only from Neanderthal.

Génome NA18555 (Chinese) – Génome NA18517 (Yoruba) = 3,9 %
Génome NA18555 (Chinese) – Génome NA18507 (Yoruba) = 5,8 %
Génome NA18555 (Chinese) – Génome NA19240 (Yoruba) = 5,4 %
Génome NA18555 (Chinese) – Génome NA19129 (Yoruba) = 4,7%

So an average of 4.95% contribution from Neanderthal genomics exclusively.

Japanese

We have the example of an individual surrounding Tokyo and unspecified genetic origins. The results are as follows:

Génome NA18956 (Japanese) – Génome NA18517 (Yoruba) = 2,9%
Génome NA18956 (Japanese) – Génome NA18507 (Yoruba) = 5,0%
Génome NA18956 (Japanese) – Génome NA19240 (Yoruba) = 2,7%
Génome NA18956 (Japanese) – Génome NA19129 (Yoruba) = 5,1%

An average of 3.93% contribution from Neanderthal genomics exclusively.

3) Conclusion

a. Results with ± 1% error:

African population: about 0%
European population: 3.93% and 4.65% and 4.5% (average: 4, 35%)
Papuan population: 4%
Han population: 5.3% and 4.95% (average : 5.13%)
Japanese population: 3.93%

The conclusion is more complicated than it seems. The African , let us first summarize, have about 0%, so no neanderthal mixing in Sub Saharan Africa. However, as it has been reported in the press, the Eurasians and Mélanasiens share genes with Neanderthals. But what sort of Neanderthal? It is time to look once again at the map and table on Neanderthal individuals whose genome has been mapped.

Vi33.16: 54.1%
Vi33.25: 46.6%
Vi33.26: 45.2%
Sidron 1253: 0.1%
Mezmaiskaya 1: 2.0%
Feldhofer 1: 0.1%

Of course, on the 54%, 46% and 45%, the major part of the genome is identical. But what is interesting are the 2% of the Mezmaiskaya individual. Indeed, this small percentage, like the 0.1% from Sidron and Feldhofer, is added to diversify the used Neanderthalgenome – as quoted in the preceding article. So the 2% of the Mezmaiskaya individual are 2% of genome that differ the Vindija individuals. Even more interesting, Mezmaiskaya individual is recognized as a step – they say – between Neanderthals from Denisova. Indeed, he is genetically close to Denisova, that, because of his age: – 65,000 years, is estimated because of him, that Neanderthals and Denisova come from the same ancestor, and that the Mezmaiskaya individual is as the missing link between Denisova and Neanderthals. Evolutionary hypothesis that comes from elements that can find very different explanation.

Atala neanderthal vindija mezmaizkaya

Genectic figure 1

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2010/05/05/328.5979.710.DC1/Green_SOM.pdf

What if the cause of the denisovian genes carried by the neanderthal individual from Mezmaiskaya was hybridization? The locality where the bones were found appears to agree with that since is located in eastern Russia. So in Asia. The Mezmaiskaya individual was not a European, but an Asian, and the 2% integrated into the Neanderthal genome that come from this individual are the 2% specific to Asian, and Denisova.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mezmaiskaya_cave

http://maps.google.fr/maps?q=44%C2%B0+10′+N+40%C2%B0+00′+E&hl=fr&ie=UTF8&ll=42.147114,41.088867&spn=11.497909,16.21582&sll=46.75984,1.738281&sspn=10.629961,16.21582&t=h&z=6

The high percentages given as a result in the Asian population comes from an addition of 2% denisovian DNA in the mixture that is the so-called Neanderthal DNA.

b. The amateurism of the study do not stop there.

And if the three main Neanderthals were not Neanderthals? ?In fact, the three individuals from Vindija (Croatia) come from one locality to the east, while the favorite Neanderthal area was the western Europe. But worse, the bones studied were dated from -38,000 years, and the researchers from the Max Planck Institute – and this is the most probable hypothesis, we will see later – dating the Sapiens / Neanderthal hybridation between -80,000 and -100,000. A good margin of 50,000 years to produce a hybrid, so.

And the numbers speak. The test african result Neanderthal test is not really 0%; we can say that there is a margin of error, it would never explain this result:

NA19240 (Yoruba) – NA18517 (Yoruba) = 1.5% (± 0.7) from Neanderthal DNA.

The Yoruba individual NA19240 thus has 1.5% _from the Neanderthal genome_? No, but these neanderthal individuals (Vindija, Croatia, -38,000 years) have 1.5% from the Yoruba genome !

c. Three major faults in this study, which corrupt clearly its result and its singularities. They are so rectified here:

Results with ± 1% error:

African people: from 0% to 1,5%

European people: 3,93% and 4,65% eand 4,5% (average: 4, 35%)

Papuan people: 4% – 2% = 2%

Han Chinese people: 5,3% et 4,95% (average: 5,13%) – 2% = 3,13%

Japanese people: 3,93% – 2% = 1,93%

The people called “European” is one that retains the most similarities with these three Vindija “croat” Neanderthals, who themselves and yet, I want to say, were hybrids, mixed with an ancestral Yoruba population, called sapiens .

The characteristic of the Papuan people to linger deserves to dwell on it. For those who have had the opportunity to see Melanesian peoples, we must know that, despite a very dark skin, children at least, are often blond, must of course take into account the Australian sunshine, which is considerable, and probably brighter color, but they are nevertheless very blond. Which, if you allow me this digression, is in total contradiction with the evolutionary theories that claim that the blond hair appeared in response to a lack of sunshine causing vitamin D deficiency, since Australia is one of place in the world where sunlight is strongest, causing a record number of skin cancer among European immigrants. The Papuan population does seem to possess gene pool from Neanderthal.

Other photographs:

http://www.fotofinder.com/search/fulltext/Melanasian

Another element that should have been verified to get an accurate idea are the origins of the individual whose Papuan DNA has been mapped. Because of the lack of seriousness applied in other cases, and the well known australian “assimilation” , let me doubt the value of this sample.

Dans le passé, la politique était d’amener les Aborigènes d’Australie à vivre en missions; on voulait ainsi les mettre à l’écart des territoires en développement des colons blancs. Du début du xxe siècle jusque vers les années 1950, la politique officielle concernant les enfants métis était celle de l’assimilation : ces enfants seraient élevés dans les missions pour intégrer la société blanche. puis incités à épouser uniquement des Blancs. Le but visé était de gommer la physionomie aborigène, à partir de la troisième génération. Aux environs des années 1960, la politique officielle concernant tous les Aborigènes d’Australie a changé en faveur de l’intégration : les Aborigènes auraient le droit de vivre dans la société occidentale, dans les missions ou dans la société traditionnelle.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ségrégation_raciale#Australie_.28XXe.C2.A0si.C3.A8cle.29

or:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stolen_Generations

It seems likely that more typically European population is even closer to the typical Neanderthal, as we will see in the next chapter.

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