A. Preliminary considerations (en)

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1. Creation

To make a child, we need an egg from the mother, and the head of a spermatozoon from the father. An egg is a whole cell, that is to say, a cell with nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. These two types of DNA are present in the future embryo. The spermatozoon is also a whole cell, but only the head of the spermatozoon enters the egg and brings to the embryo its genetic heritage. The head is not, however, a whole cell, but it only contains the kernel, which only encloses the nuclear DNA.
The « zygote » or first cell of the embryo will be composed of nuclear DNA and mtDNA from the mother and only of the nuclear DNA from the father, who does not provide its mtDNA.
All of this, occurs a priori between two entities of the same specie, and the same race, and, presumably also in vivo.

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