We have seen so far, that once created by a well defined process, a living being is classified in a race box, in a species box, in a genus box, according to the DNA that he inherited more or less from both parents. More or less, because, as explained in 1. (Creation), if both parents transmit to their children their nuclear DNA, only the mother transmits her mtDNA. The example was in humans, but it is the same for all animals.
For this study, we are forced to start with a purely biological analysis on human beings and living beings related to them. This analys will help us to better understand who we are and where we came from, and any complications that we have. Since this is the aim of “preliminary considerations”, we continue with the animal example, to understand the concepts bound to the “boxes” in which are placed the animals, including humans.
If the “genus box” seems untouchable, the « species box » and the « race box » seem to overlap, since the definition which is supposed to characterize them is distorted.
Mixing between species or between races is against nature because it does not exist without the hand of human, except under extreme conditions. Regarding the case of the mule, for example, and contrary to preconceived ideas, it is difficult to breed a mare and a donkey, whio can in many cases be left alone and not sterilized without seeking sexual contact.
However, these crosses are possible, and provide products partially or fully fertile in many cases.
Regarding the mule or hinny:
“The mule (female sometimes fertile/male always sterile) is the result of the mating of a donkey and a mare. The hinny (female sometimes fertile/male always sterile) is the result of the mating of a horse and a donkey.”
We will now focus on the products of this hybridization.
How are they? How do they develop? How do they support the presence of two sometimes conflicting DNA?
a. Physical and psychological problems.
The liger and the tiglon are probably the two most amazing. The liger (male lion x female tiger) is a giant (400kg), because it obtains a gene from her lion father which pushes his cub to grow as much as possible and become strong, without a lioness mother, which has a gene which reducer size, otherwise she could not give birth to her cub, or feed naturally.
A gene which amplifier growth in a female tiger that was not planned for this one creates a enormous cub, which continues to grow throughout his life, consuming about 20 to 25 kg of raw meat a day, with specific dietary needs, bad agility and various bone problems. It also causes for the tigress an increased need for Caesarean section, which is of course impossible in nature.
If C-section does not occur, it result in death of the mother and / or the newborn in the worst case, or cause various deformities and injuries during birth.
Note also that it comes from this breeding many spontaneous abortions or unviable embryos and newborns.
The lion is a social animal, and tiger is solitary, because of that have the liger or tigon behavioral disorders, they are often whimsical and depressive.
As for the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog and Saarloos, breed of dog from a recent hybrid between dog (German Shepherd) and gray wolf, the problems are present, although domestication has this advantage that it adapts to that which are domesticated. This dog does not bark. He is shy and dislikes cities, foreigners, noise, change. It is more social than the dog and an absolute need of a family while he recognizes as his pack. If he is alone a while, he will feel bad and destroy what he found, or will even self-harm. He will avoid conflicts with strangers and other dogs if he can, and will only attack if it is really necessary.
b. Sexual behavior
Below the variety of genetic complications: physical and psychical, hybrids change their sexual behavior and ability, and this is an important component of hybridization, because if it changes the individual, it may also lead to a severe genetic and sexual transformation of the entire species.
It is reported several cases of hyper sexualisation in hybrids, especially in the hybrid between pig and boar (cochonglier in french) or hybrid between goat and sheep named chabin in french, perhaps to rebalance the bad fertility (?). If individuals are infertile or sterile hybrid, yet they are however sexually active or too active – in contrast to individuals artificially sterilized, who does not. For example it is common to castrate the male mules, although they are sterile, because of their disruptive behavior in presence of female donkeys or mares.
“An unusual case of hybridization of sheep and goats has been reported by veterinarians in Botswana in 2000. The animal, called chabin, had been born naturally from the crossing of a ram and a goat who cohabited.
This hybridization was intermediate between the sheep and goats. The animal had a woolly down under a rough coat, long goat legs and a massive sheep body. Although he was steril, he had a very active libido, and mated with either the sheep and the goats when they were not in heat, which earned him the name of Bemya, which means rapist. He was castrated at the age of 10 months because it was becoming a problem. “
Another link on the hybrid x ram goat (female fertility, male sterility):
c. Loss of seasonal anestrus in the species of the northern hemisphere.
“Le sanglichon ( sanglochon ) ou cochonglier est un hybride, issu du croisement d’un porc et d’une laie ou d’un verrat et d’une truie. L’hybridation sanglier/porc domestique donne des femelles plus prolifiques.?Le produit du croisement porc domestique et sanglier est dit interfécond,
Il est le témoin d’une pollution génétique et est à éliminer en priorité !
Chez les hybrides, un certain nombre de signes ne trompe pas : la robe est plus claire ou bigarrée ( aux couleurs variées ) avec parfois des taches claires, roses ou blanches.
Le corps est cylindrique, le dos plat et horizontal, avec souvent des poids vifs importants alors que notre sanglier de race pure a le dos bosselé et incliné vers un arrière-train plus mince que l’avant-train..?
Les membres sont plus courts. Notre sanglier de souche pure est haut sur pattes. La queue est souvent en tire-bouchon. Les oreilles sont plus larges et parfois tombantes.Le boutoir est large et court, parfois marqué de taches claires.
Le crâne est plus plat et sans stop marqué.
Les onglons des jeunes hybrides peuvent être blancs.
Nos marcassins ont des sabots noirs.?
Le poids des hybrides et leur vitesse de croissance sont nettement supérieurs aux souches de race pure.
Un hybride mettra moins d’un an pour atteindre les 50 à 60 kilos d’une bête de compagnie d’au moins un an et demi.
Les femelles hybrides perdent cet anoestrus d’été, si caractéristique de la race pure, et sont plus prolifiques.
Female hybrids lose this summer anestrus, so characteristic of the pure race, and are more prolific.
Il faut savoir que le porc domestique possède 38 chromosomes, alors que le sanglier n’en possède que 36.”
The anestrus is the period wheen the female animal is not receptive to sexual stimulation, or mating, a long period without ovulation. Wild mammals in the northern hemisphere have a seasonal anestrus which is placed in the calendar according to their length of their gestation, so they do not can give birth in autumn and winter.
The animals in the tropics and subtropics do not have this seasonal anestrus and their sexual cycles extend over the entire year.
If we take the example of the sheep, there are differences in the races themselves, according to the habitat where the race comes from. Queue fine de l’Ouest sheep, and Noire de Thibar, both from the northern hemisphere have a seasonal anestrus from February to July, while the Barbarine from Tunisia sheep, and the PeulhduNiger sheep, who come from the southern hemisphere, do not.
Among the wild big cats:
Seasonal anoestrus: Tiger (Southeast Asia), snow leopard or Ounce (Asia), Pallas cat (Asia)
Without seasonal anoestrus: Lion (Africa), leopard (Africa, South Asia), puma (South America), cheetah (Africa), ocelot (South America)
The anestrus – known among women under post-partum (with breast-feeding) -, control birth in the hot season, and increases competition among males. In a wolf pack, the alpha male will be more aggressive during the estrus (fertile period) and will exclude other males who also try to mate with he alpha female and will challenge the hierarchy.
The anoestrus may be lost in the process of domestication in two ways:
It can be artificially “hidden” in an animal that has it in its genes. This happens among horse breeders, who submit the mare to a strong light to artificially increase the length of day and disrupt her internal clock. It is important to note that this is not so simple and requires to be rigorous with the dates, specific lighting power, otherwise the mare will be normally infertile. The mare returns to estrus / anestrus seasonality when the artificial lighting system stops.
It can also disappear at intense crossbreeding (cow, dog, pig), especially with species from the southern hemisphere (The pig is native to Asia Minor, this may be the case of the sow), who doesn’t have any anestrus system.
Natural selection by competition becomes less and less important, the products of the females will be too many and weaker, and unable to survive in the wild in the northern hemisphere.
The anestrus causes possibly less productive reproduction, but the products are able to survive in the wild.
Crosses between species produce partially fertile hybrids (in most cases: fertile female, sterile male). However, in addition to the high mortality of these products, survivors show many disorders of all styles:
Physical disorders: incompatibility with the mother in childbirth, genetic abnormalities.
Disorders of natural camouflage (pizzly, cows, appaloosa horses, dogs, cats, pigs…)
Infertility and loss of seasonal anoestrus
Sexual behavior disorders
These various problems prevent the hybrid or hybrid offspring to survive in the wild. He is forced to become and remain a domesticated animal, if he wants to survive…